From DoveArchives
(Redirected from Micronation)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The w:Principality of Sealand is a micronation located on a seafort off the coast of the United Kingdom

A micronation is a political entity whose members claim that they belong to an independent nation or sovereign state, but which lacks legal recognition by world governments or major international organizations. Micronations are classified separately from de facto states and quasi-states; they are also not considered to be autonomous nor self-governing as they lack the legal basis in international law for their existence. Micronations' activities are almost always trivial enough to be ignored rather than challenged by the established nations whose territory they claim—referred to in micronationalism as "macronations." Several micronations have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals and other state-related items, some as a source of revenue. Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protests, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity. The study of micronationalism is known as micropatriology[1] or micropatrology.[2][a]

Although several historical states have been retroactively called micronations, the concept was formulated in the 1970s, with a particular influence from the w:International Micropatrological Society. Micronationalism saw several developments thereafter, with several micronations being founded in Australia in the 1970s and a "micronations boom" in Japan in the 1980s. As a result of the emergence of the w:World Wide Web in the mid-1990s, micronationalism lost much of its traditionally eccentric anti-establishment sentiment in favour of more hobbyist perspectives, and the number of exclusively online or merely simulation-based micronations expanded dramatically. This has allowed several intermicronational organisations to form, as well as allow for numerous diplomatic summits to take place since the 2000s.


Micronations are w:aspirant states that claim independence but lack w:legal recognition by world governments or major w:international organisations.[5][6] Micronations are classified separately from w:states with limited recognition and w:quasi-states, nor are they considered to be autonomous nor w:self-governing as they lack the legal basis in w:international law for their existence.[7] While some are w:secessionist in nature, most micronations are widely regarded as sovereignty projects that instead seek to mimic a w:sovereign state rather than to achieve w:international recognition, and their activities are almost always trivial enough to be ignored rather than challenged by the established nations whose territory they claim[8][9]—referred to as a "macronation" in micronationalism.[10] Some micronations admit to having no intention of actually becoming internationally recognised as sovereign.[11] Geographically, most micronations are very small, are often the outgrowth of a single individual, rely on their sovereign state to some extent, and mimic sovereign states by creating their own government, legislation, proclaiming w:national symbols, holding national elections and engaging in w:diplomacy with other micronations.[12][13] While most micronations claim sovereignty over physical territory, others are based solely around the w:Internet or do not claim sovereignty at all, a hobbyist paradigm of micronationalism that arose with the rise of the Internet from the mid-1990s onwards.[14][15][16]

In 2021, legal academics w:Harry Hobbs and George Williams, in their w:Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty, defined micronations as:

self-declared nations that perform and mimic acts of sovereignty, and adopt many of the protocols of nations, but lack a foundation in domestic and international law for their existence and are not recognised as nations in domestic or international forums.

Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty, Page 76[17]

Online dictionary w:Collins English Dictionary, published by w:HarperCollins, gives a similar definition:

An entity, typically existing only on the internet or within the private property of its members, that lays claim to sovereign status as an independent nation, but which is unrecognized by real nations.

Collins English Dictionary[18]


Retrospective micronations

Several historical w:political entities have been retroactively described as "micronations" in academic and journalistic works, including the w:Islands of Refreshment (existed 1811–16),[19] w:Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia (since 1860),[20] w:State of Scott (1861–1986),[21] w:Republic of Parva Domus Magna Quies (since 1878),[22] and the more contemporaneous w:Kingdom of Elleore (since 1944),[22] w:Republic of Saugeais (since 1947),[23] w:Principality of Outer Baldonia (1949–1973)[24] and w:Sultanate of M'Simbati (1959–fl. 1964).[25]

Libertarian micronations and seasteading projects: 1964–1972

w:Republic of Rose Island, before its destruction
The w:Republic of Minerva was a libertarian project that succeeded in building an w:artificial island in 1972 by importing sand

Several entities that can be considered micronations by contemporary standards were established throughout the 1960s and early 1970s and based on ideals of w:libertarianism and many of them created via w:seasteading.

New Atlantis was founded in 1964 by writer w:Leicester Hemingway, claiming a bamboo raft that he had constructed with steel, iron piping and rock. Hemingway had it towed 9.7 kilometres (6.0 mi) off the coast of Jamaica and argued that it was technically an w:island and fully sovereign based on the w:Guano Islands Act of 1856. Although Hemingway had plans to expand the raft, it was destroyed within a few years by a cyclone, and the project was completely abandoned in 1973.[26][27][28] In 1967, w:Paddy Roy Bates squatted on w:HM Fort Roughs, an offshore platform in the w:North Sea used during World War II approximately 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) off the coast of the United Kingdom.[29] Bates had intended to broadcast a pirate radio station from the platform, however ultimately never did so.[30] He instead declared the independence of Fort Roughs and deemed it the w:Principality of Sealand.[29][30] Bates died in 2012, and Michael Bates has since succeeded him as Prince of Sealand.[31]

w:Operation Atlantis was a project started in 1968 by Werner Stiefel, aiming to establish a new, libertarian nation in international waters via seasteading.[32] The operation launched a w:ferrocement boat on the w:Hudson River in December 1971, piloting it to an area near the Bahamas with the intent to permanently anchor it as their territory.[33] Upon reaching its destination, however, it sank in a hurricane.[34] After a number of subsequent failed attempts to construct a habitable sea platform and achieve sovereign status, the project was abandoned in 1976.[35] The w:Republic of Rose Island was an artificial platform originally constructed as a w:tourist attraction in the w:Adriatic Sea in 1968. However, Italian architect Giorgio Rosa soon declared it as sovereign.[36] The micronation had its own currency, a post office and commercial establishments. In 1969, the w:Italian Navy used explosives to destroy the facility, claiming it was a ploy to raise money from tourists while avoiding national w:taxation.[37] The w:Republic of Minerva was a libertarian project that succeeded in building a small, w:artificial island on the w:Minerva Reefs in 1972 by importing sand.[38] It was invaded by troops from Tonga that same year, who annexed it before destroying the island.[36] During its brief existence, Minerva was a w:media sensation.[39]


As of January 1973, the Office of the Geographer of the w:United States Department of State had a file cabinet for "countries which are only partially real," which included the w:Kingdom of Humanity, Outer Baldonia, Minerva and the w:Sovereign Military Order of Malta—not a micronation[40]—among others. Writer Philip J. Hilts added "We know the w:Eastern bloc, the w:Western bloc, and the w:Third World nations. But there is another universe of nations which exist apart from the familiar countries."[41] The w:International Micropatrological Society (IMS), an American w:learned society and w:research institute, was founded in 1973 and dedicated to the study of micronations, a discipline it named micropatrology.[42][43][44] By 1976, it had documents pertaining to 128 micronations and similar political entities.[45] The earliest attested use of micronation in its current meaning appeared on 28 March 1976 in an article by w:the New York Times about the IMS.[45] The first use of micronation in a book was in an eponymous dedicated section of the 1978 w:The People's Almanac by w:David Wallechinsky and w:Irving Wallace.[46] In 1979, the first book about micronations, How to Start Your Own Country, was published by w:Erwin S. Strauss.[47] The IMS contributed considerably to the work.[48] However, the word micronation is notably absent from the book. A second edition of the work was published in 1984 by w:Loompanics, followed in 1999 by a third edition published by w:Paladin Press.[47] According to the w:Yearbook of International Organizations, the IMS was disestablished in 1988.[49]

Initial developments in Australia: 1970–1981

Entrance to the w:Principality of Hutt River (formerly Hutt River Province), a micronation founded in Australia

Australia has a disproportionate number of micronations compared to other countries.[50][51] The first micronation founded within Australia was the w:Principality of Hutt River in 1970. It was declared independent by farmer w:Leonard Casley over a dispute concerning wheat w:production quotas.[52] In 2017, the w:Supreme Court of Western Australia ordered that Casley pay $2.7 million in unpaid tax, and that his son Arthur Casley pay $242,000 in unpaid tax.[53] Casley abdicated in 2017 in favour of his son Graeme.[52] Leonard died in 2019, and Hutt River dissolved the following year amidst continued disputes with the w:Australian Taxation Office as well as the financial impact caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.[54] In 1976, the w:Province of Bumbunga was declared by Alec Brackstone in response to the w:1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Brackstone, an ardent British monarchist, became alarmed by what he saw as a drift away from the Australian system of w:constitutional monarchy toward outright w:republicanism. Thus, to ensure that at least one portion of Australia would remain loyal to the w:British Crown, Bumbunga was declared.[55][56]

The w:Sovereign State of Aeterna Lucina was proclaimed in 1978 by German migrant Paul Neuman. Aeterna Lucina came to public attention in 1990 when Neuman faced fraud charges in the w:New South Wales court system relating to land sale offences; the case was abandoned in 1992.[57] In 1979, the w:Independent State of Rainbow Creek was declared by Thomas Barnes in protest of alleged incompetence by the w:Government of Victoria in regards to the flooding of his and others' properties.[58] He was inspired by Hutt River.[59] The w:Grand Duchy of Avram was established in w:Tasmania in the early 1980s by politician w:John Charlton Rudge, and issues its own banknotes.[50] In recognition of his status, Rudge legally changed his name to John the Duke of Avram.[60] In 1981, the w:Empire of Atlantium was founded in w:Sydney as a non-territorial global government based on the ideals of w:secularism, w:progressivism and w:liberalism. Among the causes Atlantium supports are the right to unrestricted international w:freedom of movement, the right to w:abortion, and the right to w:assisted suicide.[61][62]

Micronational community in Japan: 1981–1991

In 1981, drawing on a news story about Hemingway's New Atlantis, novelist w:Hisashi Inoue wrote a 700-page work of w:magic realism, w:Kirikirijin, about a village that secedes from Japan and proclaims its bumpkinish, marginalized w:dialect its national language, and its subsequent w:war of independence. This single-handedly inspired a large number of real-world Japanese villages, mostly in the northern regions, to "declare independence", generally as a move to raise awareness of their unique culture and crafts for urban Japanese who saw village life as backwards and uncultured. These micronations, known as independent mini-nations (Japanese: ミニ独立国, romanized: mini dokuritsu koku),[63][64] held intermicronational summits, and some of them formed confederations and intermicronational organisations. The Ginko Federation held an intermicronational w:Olympic games in 1986. However, the economic impact of the w:Japanese asset price bubble in 1991 ended the boom. Many of the villages were forced to merge with larger cities, and the micronations and confederations were generally dissolved.[65][66][67]

Protest micronations: 1980s

The 1980s saw the establishment of several micronational entities in protest.

The w:Free Republic of Wendland was a w:protest camp established in w:Gorleben, w:West Germany in 1980 in order to protest against the establishment of a w:nuclear waste dump at the site. The residents created a w:border checkpoint and built a temporary village with more than 100 huts, ranging from elaborate round houses to tents. After 33 days, the local police moved in and evicted the camp.[68][69] Also in 1980, the w:Independent State of Aramoana was declared by residents of the eponymous settlement during the w:Save Aramoana Campaign, which was opposed to the proposed construction of an w:aluminium smelter at Aramoana in New Zealand.[70] This was because the project called for the destruction of the villages of Aramoana and Te Ngaru, and also threatened a local wildlife reserve. The project was ultimately abandoned in the early 1980s, and the micronation of Aramoana peacefully reintegrated into New Zealand.[71]

The w:Conch Republic was founded by local residents of the w:Florida Keys in 1982 after the w:United States Border Patrol set up a roadblock and inspection point on one of the only two roads connecting the Florida Keys with the mainland. The w:Key West City Council complained repeatedly about the inconvenience, claiming that it hurt the Keys' tourism industry. Though the roadblock was soon removed, the claim to sovereignty of the Conch Republic has persisted as a w:tongue-in-cheek venture meant to booster tourism.[72] In 1986, the w:Kingdom of North Dumpling was declared by inventor w:Dean Kamen after a denial from local officials to build his own wind turbine on w:North Dumpling Island, which Kamen privately owns. Kamen wrote his own constitution and created a flag, currency and national anthem for the micronation.[73] In 1992, despite still being recognised as part of the United States, Kamen was able to leverage his personal relationship with then-president w:George H. W. Bush to sign an unofficial w:non-aggression pact.[74]

Artistic micronations: 1990s

Effects of the Internet and media attention

In the mid-1990s, the emerging popularity of the w:World Wide Web made it possible for anyone to create their own virtual state-like entity with relative ease,[15][75] and many micronations launched their own w:websites.[14] As a result, micronationalism lost much of its traditionally eccentric anti-establishment sentiment in favour of more hobbyist perspectives, and the number of exclusively online or merely simulation-based micronations expanded dramatically.[76] Several intermicronational organisations were also established,[77] with the w:League of Secessionist States, originally founded in 1980 by the w:Kingdom of Talossa,[78] and the United Micronations being at the forefront.[15] The w:French Institute of Micropatrology (French: l'Institut français de micropatrologie) was founded in 1996 by Swiss author w:Fabrice O'Driscoll of w:Aix-Marseille University to study this phenomenon.[14][79] Other online micronational services during the 1990s included MicroWorld, a monthly micronational magazine,[14] and alt.politics.micronations, a w:Usenet w:newsgroup dedicated to discussions regarding micronationalism.[80] In 2000, O'Driscoll published his book Ils ne siègent pas à l'ONU: revue de quelques micro-Etats, micro-nations et autres entités éphémères (They do not sit at the UN: a review of some micro-states, micro-nations and other ephemeral entities), which details over 600 micronations.[3]

A marker along the w:Republic of Molossia's claimed border with Nevada

In 2000, the w:Republic of Molossia and the erstwhile w:Kingdom of TorHavn hosted an Intermicronational w:Olympic Games online to coincide with the w:2000 Summer Olympics.[81] Six micronations competed and were asked to record their performances then report it to a Molossian w:message board.[82] In 2003, the First Summit of Micronations summit commenced in w:Helsinki, Finland, coinciding with a w:performance art festival called Amorph!03. Six micronations were represented.[83] An art exhibition exhibiting various micronational miscellanea, We Could Have Invited Everyone, occurred in 2004 and 2005 at the Reg Vardy Gallery, w:University of Sunderland, England and Andrew Kreps Gallery, w:New York City, United States respectively.[84][85] The items were featured alongside artwork by artists including w:Yoko Ono and w:Nina Katchadourian.[85][86] Both exhibitions coincided with an intermicronational summit.[87] In 2005, the six-part w:BBC comedy-w:documentary series w:How to Start Your Own Country aired on w:BBC Two, in which comedian Danny Wallace attempts to create his own country in his apartment in w:Bow, London. The micronation he created was eventually named the w:Kingdom of Lovely.[88] The following year, the w:travel guide company w:Lonely Planet published a light-hearted guide to numerous micronations titled w:Micronations: The Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations.[89][90]

In 2007, two self-proclaimed princesses of the w:Sunda Democratic Empire, sisters Puteri Lamia Roro Wiranata and Puteri Fathia Reza, were detained by Malaysian immigration authorities for attempting to enter from Brunei using diplomatic passports from the Sunda Empire. They claimed to be the princesses of the historical w:Sunda Kingdom and that their parents were in "w:exile."[91][92] In early 2008, they were freed by the Sessions Court, but maintained their claim of Sundan citizenship, thus making them ineligible for w:deportation to Indonesia. The Malaysian authorities subsequently deemed them w:stateless individuals, and they were interned at an immigration depot under supervision of the w:United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.[93][94]


In 2010, the documentary film How to Start Your Own Country, directed by Jody Shapiro, was screened as part of the 35th Toronto International Film Festival.[95] The documentary explored various micronations around the world and included an analysis of the concept of statehood, seasteading and w:citizenship.[95][96] The film was inspired by Erwin Strauss' eponymous book.[97] Also that same year, an intermicronational summit, PoliNation 2010, was held at w:Dangar Island in w:Sydney, Australia. It was organised by Judy Lattas of w:Macquarie University, Princess Paula of the w:Principality of Snake Hill and George Cruickshank of the Empire of Atlantium.[98][99] Between 2013 and 2014, two w:Aboriginal Australian w:nations declared independence from Australia as part of the concept of w:Australian Aboriginal sovereignty—first the w:Murrawarri Republic, comprising the w:Muruwari, in 2013, and the w:Sovereign Yidindji Government, comprising the Yidindji, in 2014.[100][101][102] In both cases, the declarations of independence went wholly unrecognised by the w:Government of Australia.[103][104]

In 2015, the first convention of the biannual w:MicroCon was held in w:Anaheim, California, United States. Hosted by the Republic of Molossia, several presentations were held by micronationalists regarding various topics in micronationalism.[105][106][107] The w:Organisation de la microfrancophonie, a French intermicronational organisation, was founded in 2015.[108] The organisation organised its first summit in 2016, hosted by the w:Principality of Aigues-Mortes.[109] In 2018, the w:Principality of Islandia was established by two individuals aiming to build a w:crowdfunded micronation.[110] Successfully purchasing the uninhabited w:Coffee Caye in the w:Caribbean Sea off the coast of Belize in 2019, Prime Minister of Belize w:John Briceño dismissed the project in 2022, calling them "stupid" and stating "We will never allow anybody to have their own country within this country [Belize] - what a stupid thing. If you stupid enough to pay a lot of money to buy [a] piece of land, good for you."[111]


During the w:COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2020, several micronations imposed their own restrictions, mimicking countries.[112] Some inactive Internet-based micronations also returned to activity as people were commanded to stay home and quarantine.[113] In 2020, w:Netflix released the film Rose Island, based on the story of engineer Giorgio Rosa and the Republic of Rose Island.[114] In 2021, academics Harry Hobbs and George Williams published Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty, a book exploring various aspects of micronationalism.[115] It was published by w:Cambridge University Press.[116] A follow-up book on micronations by Hobbs and Williams, entitled w:How to Rule Your Own Country: The Weird and Wonderful World of Micronations, was published in 2022 by the w:University of New South Wales Press.[117] Also in 2022, illusionist w:Uri Geller purchased Lamb, an uninhabited island off the coast of Scotland and declared it independent as the w:Republic of Lamb. Geller offers citizenship, with proceeds going to w:Save a Child's Heart, an Israeli charity.[118]

Territorial claims

Other claims

Some micronations have attempted to establish themselves in w:international waters—parts of the w:sea that cannot be claimed by any sovereign state—by seasteading. This involves the creation of permanent dwellings at sea. Some micronations are associated with w:the Seasteading Institute, a w:non-profit organisation formed to facilitate the establishment of these seasteads.[96][119][120]

The w:Space Kingdom of Asgardia, founded in October 2016, claims an w:artificial satellite that orbited the Earth.[121][122] Named w:Asgardia-1, the two-unit w:CubeSat was successfully launched by w:Orbital ATK in November 2017 as part of an w:International Space Station resupply mission.[123] Asgardia-1 reportedly re-entered the atmosphere in September 2022.[124] The w:Nation of Celestial Space claims all of w:outer space,[125] whilst the w:Empire of Angyalistan lays claim to w:garbage patches around the world's oceans in protest against their existence.[126]

Functions as a sovereign state

Coins minted by the Principality of Sealand

Micronations function in the same way as sovereign states in that they have their own government, w:constitution, legislation, and (if a w:democracy) hold national elections. Micronations often have national symbols such as a flag, w:coat of arms or seal, motto and anthem, and many micronations also issue coins, banknotes, stamps, passports, w:passport stamps, w:orders of merit and bestow honours and titles of nobility, although these are not recognised internationally.[6][13][121][127] Some micronations have made profits by selling these items as w:souvenirs and w:memorabilia to tourists and via their national websites, and others have even sold w:citizenship and titles of nobility.[29][128] Some micronational coinage and stamps, if professionally made, have become valued as w:collector's items by w:numismatists and w:philatelists (stamp collectors) alike.[129] In addition, both Sealand and Seborga have their own national w:association football teams. The w:Sealand national football team was founded in 2004[130] and became an associate member of the w:N.F.-Board, a federation made up of unrecognised states, w:stateless peoples, regions and micronations that are not allowed to join w:FIFA, in 2006.[131] The w:Seborga national football team was founded in 2014 and is run by the Football Federation of the Principality of Seborga.[132]



Intermicronational summits

Websites and online communities


Arguments for sovereignty

Micronation as a word has no basis in international law.[133][134] Despite this, several micronations have attempted to justify their claims to sovereignty by citing w:loopholes in local laws. A commonly attempted tactic used by micronationalists to legitimise their claims is the w:declarative theory of statehood as defined by the w:Montevideo Convention, which defines a state as: "a person of international law [that] possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent w:population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states."[134][135]

In 2019, a couple seasteading off the coast of Thailand went into hiding after being accused by the w:Royal Thai Navy of violating Thailand's sovereignty. If found guilty, they could face w:life in prison or the w:death penalty.[136][137]

Based on historical claims

Some micronations are founded on the basis of historical anomalies. The w:Principality of Seborga was founded in 1963 by Giorgio Carbone, who claimed to have found documents from the w:Vatican archives which, according to Carbone, indicated that w:Seborga had never been a possession of the w:House of Savoy and was thus not legally included in the w:Kingdom of Italy when it was formed in 1861, meaning that Seborga had remained sovereign.[138][139][140] The Romanov Empire, created by chairman of the w:Monarchist Party of Russia w:Anton Bakov, claims to be a re-creation of the w:Russian Empire that holds w:Prince Karl Emich of Leiningen as the rightful w:heir to the imperial throne.[141]

See also


  1. Both terms also refer to the study of microstates.[3][4]


  1. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 74.
  2. Ferguson 2009, p. 37.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Vieira, Fátima (2022). "Micronations and Hyperutopias". In Marks, Peter; Wagner-Lawlor, Jennifer A.; Vieira, Fátima (eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Utopian and Dystopian Literatures. p. 282. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-88654-7_22. ISBN 978-3-030-88654-7. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  4. Eccardt, Thomas M. (2005). Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europe: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-781-81032-6. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  5. Mislan & Streich 2018, p. 17, 26.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Sawe, Benjamin Elisha (25 April 2017). "What Is A Micronation?". World Atlas. World Facts.
  7. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 82, 202.
  8. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 2.
  9. Hobbs & Williams 2021a, p. 75.
  10. Wedgwood, Ruth (2000). "Cyber-Nations". w:Kentucky Law Journal. w:University of Kentucky College of Law. 88 (4): 962.
  11. Oeuillet, Julien (7 December 2015). "Springtime of micronations spearheaded by Belgian "Grand-Duke" Niels". w:The Brussels Times. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016.
  12. Ferguson 2009, p. 1–2.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Moreau 2014, p. 59–60.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Latrive, Florent (2 October 1998). "L'organisation des nations online. De Choconia à Mérovingie, les «micronations» virtuelles se développent sur l'Internet avec leur Constitution, leur drapeau, voire leur monnaie. Entre jeux de rôles, création artistique et laboratoire politique" [The organization of nations online. From Choconia to Merovingia, virtual "micronations" are developing on the Internet with their own constitution, their own flag, even their own currency. Between roleplay, artistic creation and political laboratory.]. w:Libération (in French).
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Mihm, Stephen (25 May 2000). "Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online". w:The New York Times.
  16. Lasserre 2000, p. 11–17.
  17. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 76.
  18. micronation. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |work= ignored (help)
  19. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 14.
  20. Ferguson 2009, p. 1.
  21. Lienhard, John H. (27 June 2022). Small Countries (audio). The Engines of Our Ingenuity. w:The University of Houston. Event occurs at 2:15–2:37.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 105.
  23. Eyres, Lebby (12 March 2020). "A Tiny Country between France and Switzerland". w:BBC Travel. w:BBC News.
  24. Mackinnon, Lachlan (2014). ""Give me fish, not federalism"" (PDF). Shima. Shima Publishing. 8 (2): 106.
  25. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 169.
  26. "Leicester Hemingway: An Inventory of His New Atlantis Collection in the Manuscript Collection at the Harry Ransom Center". w:Harry Ransom Center. w:University of Texas at Austin. n.d.
  27. Strauss 1999, p. 65–68.
  28. Walker, Lawrence R.; Bellingham, Peter (2011). Island Environments in a Changing World. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-13950-026-5.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 MacEacheran, Mike (6 July 2020). "Sealand: A peculiar 'nation' off England's coast". BBC Travel. BBC News.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 9.
  31. "'Prince of Sealand' Roy Bates dies in Essex". BBC News. 10 October 2012.
  32. Simpson 2016, p. I.
  33. Baker, Chris (19 January 2009). "Live Free or Drown: Floating Utopias on the Cheap". Wired.
  34. Simpson 2016, p. 28.
  35. Strauss 1999, p. 74.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 14.
  37. Imarisio, Marco (28 August 2009). "Riemerge l'isola dell'Utopia" [The island of Utopia re-emerges]. w:Corriere della Sera (in Italian).
  38. Strauss 1999, p. 115–116.
  39. Strauss 1999, p. 123.
  40. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 50, 52.
  41. Hilts, Philip J. (21 January 1973). "Where Is This Place?: Strange shores, indeed". w:The Washington Post. p. PC12. ProQuest 148471481.
  42. O'Driscoll 2000, p. 100.
  43. Moreau 2014, p. 51.
  44. Strauss 1999, p. 162.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Bongartz, Roy (28 March 1976). "Nations Off the Beaten Track". w:The New York Times – via the New York Times Archives.
  46. Wallechinsky, David; Irving, Wallace (1978). The People's Almanac #2. w:William Morrow and Company. pp. 330–331. ISBN 978-0-553-01137-1.
  47. 47.0 47.1 Strauss 1999, "w:edition notice".
  48. Strauss 1999, p. II.
  49. "International Micropatrological Society (IMS)". Global Civil Society Database. w:Yearbook of International Organizations. w:Union of International Associations (UIA). n.d.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Trigger, Rebecca (10 February 2017). "Micro-nations: Meet the tiny states who've said 'see ya later' to the Commonwealth". ABC News.
  51. Hobbs, Harry; Williams, George (23 October 2022b). "Raising the drawbridge: why are so many Australians creating their own countries?". w:The Guardian.
  52. 52.0 52.1 "Leonard Casley obituary". w:The Times. 5 March 2019.
  53. Neuweiler, Sebastian; Menagh, Joanna (16 June 2017). "Australia's oldest micro-nation founders ordered to pay $3m tax bill". ABC News.
  54. O'Connell, Ronan (10 August 2020). "Australia's oldest micronation, Hutt River is no more thanks to Covid-19". w:CNN.
  55. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 144.
  56. Cook, Craig (30 June 2018). "Bumbunga Governor Alec Brackstone's relentless will to secede". The Advertiser.
  57. Brown, Malcom (24 June 1992). "Clouds cleared on baron's reign". w:The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 10 – via the SMH Archives.
  58. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 97.
  59. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 145.
  60. Hobbs & Williams 2022, p. 24–25.
  61. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 74.
  62. Gilbert, Ewan (17 October 2015). "Empire of Atlantium: Take a glimpse into Australia's smallest micronation". ABC News.
  63. Vlastos, Stephen (1998). Mirror of Modernity: Invented Traditions of Modern Japan. w:University of California Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-05-20206-373.
  64. Kurahara, Munetaka; Goto, Yuki; Hikage, Toshiya (30 October 1996). "住民主体のまちづくりに向けての北海道ミニ独立国の活動に関する考察" [Consideration on the activities of the mini-independent country of Hokkaido for resident-centered town planning]. Proceedings of the Architectural Institute of Japan (in Japanese). Architectural Institute of Japan. 61 (488): 165–175. doi:10.3130/aija.61.165_2.
  65. Inoue, Shigeru (2010). 日本まちづくり事典 [Nippon Matchidukuri Jiten] (in Japanese). Maruzen Publishing. pp. 407–409. ISBN 978-4-621-08194-5.
  66. Streich, Philip (2021). "The Japanese Experience with Micronations" (PDF). Transformations (35): 119–128.
  67. Pasion, Adam (9 February 2016). "The Will to Secede: Japan's Micro-nation Boom". Japan Daily.
  68. Werner, Carina (3 May 2020). ""Freie Republik Wendland": Gelebte Utopie der Atomkraftgegner" ["Free Republic of Wendland": Living utopia of nuclear power opponents]. w:Norddeutscher Rundfunk (in German).
  69. ""Venceremos, tschüß"" ['Venceremos, Goodbye']. w:Der Spiegel (in German). 13 July 1980.
  70. Hobbs & Williams 2022, p. 194.
  71. Constantine, Ellie (13 December 2011). "Aramoana: pathway to the sea". w:Otago Daily Times.
  72. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 131–133.
  73. Ravo, Nick (22 April 1988). "Our Towns; From L.I. Sound, A New Nation Asserts Itself". The New York Times.
  74. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 150.
  75. Lasserre 2000, p. 10.
  76. Lasserre 2000, p. 1–3, 8.
  77. Ištok, Robert; Nováková, Štefánia (2014). "Micronationalism as a Phenomenon of the Present" (PDF). Folia Geographica. w:University of Prešov. 56 (1): 52.
  78. O'Driscoll 2000, p. 258.
  79. Foucher-Dufoix, Valérie; Dufoix, Stéphane (February 2012). "La patrie peut-elle être virtuelle ?" [Can the homeland be virtual?]. Pardés (in French). In Press. 52: 57–75 – via w:Cairn.info.
  80. Lattas, Judy (2005). Fine, Michael; Smith, Nicholas; Wise, Amanda (eds.). "DIY sovereignty and the popular right in Australia". Mobile Boundaries/Rigid Worlds. w:Macquarie University: 14.
  81. Hobbs & Williams 2022, p. 220.
  82. Hay, Mark (14 October 2016). "The Absurd History Of The Intermicronational Olympic Games". w:GOOD Magazine.
  83. Kochta-Kalleinen, Oliver (2005) [2003]. Amorph!03 Summit Of Micronations: Protocols (PDF). ISBN 978-9-519-65536-9. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  84. "Hidden nations revealed". w:The Northern Echo. 29 October 2004.
  85. 85.0 85.1 Smith, Roberta (15 July 2005). "Art in Review; We Could Have Invited Everyone". The New York Times.
  86. Raven, Francis (September 2005). "We Could Have Invited Everyone". w:The Brooklyn Rail.
  87. "We Could Have Invited Everyone (24. Jun 2005 → 29. Jul 2005)". Andrew Kreps Gallery (Press release). Kunstaspekte.
  88. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 28.
  89. Chadwick, Alex (1 November 2007). "'Lonely Planet' Explores Micronations". w:NPR.
  90. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, "w:edition notice".
  91. Then, Stephen (24 July 2007). "Two 'princesses' detained in Sarawak". The Star.
  92. "Self-professed 'princesses' from ancient Indonesian monarchy face Malaysia court". w:Taiwan News. Associated Press. 12 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2022.
  93. Gustaman, Y (20 June 2020). "Tak Akui Indonesia, Ini Kewarganegaraan Dua Putri Mahkota Sunda Empire di Paspor Diplomatiknya" [Not Recognizing Indonesia, These are the Citizenship of the Two Crown Princesses of the Sunda Empire in their Diplomatic Passport]. Tribun Jakarta [id] (in Indonesian).
  94. Ariyani, Tatik (21 June 2020). "13 Tahun 2 Putri Sunda Empire Mendekam di Sel, Mau Dibebaskan Pemerintah Malaysia Bingung Karena Keduanya Tidak Mengaku Sebagai WNI, Kekeh Mengaku dari Sunda Empire" [13-year-old daughters of Sunda Empire languish in cell, want to be released but Malaysian government confused because neither of them claim to be Indonesian citizens; Kekeh claims to be from the Sunda Empire]. w:Intisari (in Indonesian).
  95. 95.0 95.1 Anderson, John (12 September 2010). "How to Start Your Own Country". Variety.
  96. 96.0 96.1 w:The Seasteading Institute (20 October 2010). "Review of Micronation Film Highlights Seasteading Vision". The Seasteading Institute.
  97. Harvey, Shannon (5 October 2011). "Documentary explores the meaning of country". w:The West Australian.
  98. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Squires
  99. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PoliNation
  100. Neubauer, Ian Lloyd (30 May 2013). "Australia's Aborigines Launch a Bold Legal Push for Independence". Time.
  101. Waby, Tasmin (3 November 2015). "Aboriginal tribe cuts ties with Australia". Lonely Planet.
  102. Robertson, Joshua (17 February 2016). "Self-declared sovereign Indigenous nation recognised by Australian minister". The Guardian.
  103. Hobbs & Williams 2022, p. 192.
  104. Howden, Saffron (2 November 2015). "Murrumu Walubara Yidindji renounces citizenship to reclaim Australia". w:The Age.
  105. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named QZ
  106. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NPR
  107. Usborne, Simon (13 April 2015). "MicroCon 2015: Dictators of the world unite at world summit of micronations - countries too small to count". w:The Independent.
  108. Baudet, Marie-Béatrice (20 August 2021). "Flandrensis, le Grand-Duché qui veut sauver la planète" [Flandrensis, the Grand Duchy that wants to save the planet]. w:Le Monde (in French).
  109. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 20min
  110. Collett, Richard (10 March 2022). "They bought a Caribbean island to start their own country". CNN.
  111. Thackray, Lucy (31 March 2022). "Crowdfunded private island sparks feud after owners claim it as 'micronation'". The Independent.
  112. Haines, Gavin (25 March 2020). "How micronations are responding to the coronavirus". Lonely Planet.
  113. Hookway, James (21 June 2020). "Fake Countries Have a Hard Time Dealing with the Pandemic, Too". w:The Wall Street Journal.
  114. "Rose Island: Netflix adapts the story of 'prince of anarchists' Giorgio Rosa". BBC News. 7 December 2020.
  115. Corbett, Jack (May 2022). "Book review : Micronations and the search for sovereignty". Small States & Territories. Islands and Small States Institute. w:University of Malta. 5 (1): 229–230.
  116. Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty. Cambridge Studies in Constitutional Law. w:Cambridge University Press. n.d. ISBN 9781009150125.
  117. "Forget a castle — your home can be your very own nation". w:The Australian. 28 October 2022.
  118. Berg, Raffi (7 August 2022). "The mysteries that gave birth to the world's newest micronation". BBC News.
  119. Baker, Chris (19 January 2009). "Live Free or Drown: Floating Utopias on the Cheap". Wired.
  120. Eveleth, Rose (14 April 2015). "'I rule my own ocean micronation'". w:BBC News.
  121. 121.0 121.1 Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 75.
  122. Cuthbertson, Anthony (26 June 2018). "'Space kingdom' Asgardia wants IQ tests for wannabe citizens". w:The Independent.
  123. Crane, Leah (13 November 2017). "The 'space nation' Asgardia just launched its first satellite". w:New Scientist.
  124. Mack, Eric (7 September 2022). "Asgardia, the 'World's First Space Kingdom,' Could Soon Crash Back to Earth". w:CNET.
  125. Strauss 1999, p. 82, 85.
  126. Baudet, Marie-Béatrice (18 August 2021). "L'invitation au rêve de l'empire d'Angyalistan, qui règne en tout bien tout honneur sur la ligne d'horizon" [The invitation to dream of the empire of Angyalistan, which reigns supreme on the horizon]. w:Le Monde.
  127. Ferguson 2009, p. 2.
  128. Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 32.
  129. Lee, Winnie (6 February 2020). "The Joy of Collecting Stamps From Countries That Don't Really Exist". w:Atlas Obscura.
  130. "Ralf Little gets an international cap for Sealand". w:BBC Sport. BBC News. 7 May 2012.
  131. "NF-Board Opens Registrations for the 1st Viva World Cup in Northern Cyprus". w:Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (Press release). 1 July 2015.
  132. "La Federazione Calcistica di Seborga ottiene il primo titolo nazionale italiano" [The Seborga Football Federation obtains its first Italian national title]. Riviera24 (in Italian). 3 October 2022.
  133. Grant, John P.; Barker, J. Craig, eds. (2009). "micronations". Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.). w:Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-38977-7 – via w:Oxford Reference. While the terms micro-States or mini-States have some meaning in international law, the term micronations does not.
  134. 134.0 134.1 Hobbs & Williams 2021b, p. 28–29.
  135. Furnues 2018, p. 11–12.
  136. Weedon, Alan (18 April 2019). "Bitcoin couple could face death penalty in Thailand for 'seastead' floating home in international waters". ABC News.
  137. "US man could face death penalty over Thailand 'sea home'". BBC News. 18 April 2019.
  138. "His Tremendousness Giorgio Carbone". The Telegraph. 27 November 2009.
  139. Bosio, Dario (27 February 2018). An Italian village that wants independence. w:BBC Travel (short documentary). BBC News.
  140. Ryan, Dunford & Sellars 2006, p. 28–33.
  141. Bernard, Lagan; Parfitt, Tom (28 February 2017). "Russian monarchist dreams of Romanov revival in the Pacific". The Times.


Further reading



External links